In much of the developing world, agriculture is the key vehicle for moving millions of people out of poverty. Smallholder farmers, the majority of whom are women, produce most of the food we eat. Often they do this with minimal support, using outdated technologies and practices. They are seldom reached by extension and advisory service providers as their needs and demands are not well articulated or understood. They also lack the resources, mainly financial, required to access much-needed inputs. Increased attention is now being paid to the issues inhibiting the full participation of smallholder farmers in value chains. Policy and institutional changes are critical in bringing about a transformation.